Locoregional CAR T cells for children with CNS tumors: Clinical procedure and catheter safety

2023-01-0411:00

Nicholas A VitanzaRebecca RonsleyMichelle ChoeCasey HensonMandy BreedtAdriel Barrios-AndersonAmy WeinChristopher BrownAdam BeebeAda KongDanielle KirkeyBrittany M LeeSarah E S LearyErin E CrottyCorrine HoeppnerSusan HoltzclawAshley L WilsonJoshua A GustafsonJessica B FosterJeffrey J IliffHannah E GoldsteinSamuel R BrowdAmy LeeJeffrey G OjemannNavin PintoJuliane GustRebecca A GardnerMichael C JensenJason S HauptmanJulie R Park

Central nervous system (CNS) tumors are the most common solid malignancy in the pediatric population. Based on adoptive cellular therapy's clinical success against childhood leukemia and the preclinical efficacy against pediatric CNS tumors, chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells offer hope of improving outcomes for recurrent tumors and universally fatal diseases such as diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG). However, a major obstacle for tumors of the brain and spine is ineffective T cell...

Central nervous system (CNS) tumors are the most common solid malignancy in the pediatric population. Based on adoptive cellular therapy's clinical success against childhood leukemia and the preclinical efficacy against pediatric CNS tumors, chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells offer hope of improving outcomes for recurrent tumors and universally fatal diseases such as diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG). However, a major obstacle for tumors of the brain and spine is ineffective T cell...

Neoplasia. 2023 Feb;36:100870. doi: 10.1016/j.neo.2022.100870. Epub 2023 Jan 3.

ABSTRACT

Central nervous system (CNS) tumors are the most common solid malignancy in the pediatric population. Based on adoptive cellular therapy's clinical success against childhood leukemia and the preclinical efficacy against pediatric CNS tumors, chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells offer hope of improving outcomes for recurrent tumors and universally fatal diseases such as diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG). However, a major obstacle for tumors of the brain and spine is ineffective T cell chemotaxis to disease sites. Locoregional CAR T cell delivery via infusion through an intracranial catheter is currently under study in multiple early phase clinical trials. Here, we describe the Seattle Children's single-institution experience including the multidisciplinary process for the preparation of successful, repetitive intracranial T cell infusion for children and the catheter-related safety of our 307 intracranial CAR T cell doses.

PMID:36599192 | PMC:PMC9823206 | DOI:10.1016/j.neo.2022.100870

Epigenetic programming of pediatric high-grade glioma: Pushing beyond proof of concept to clinical benefit

2023-01-0211:00

Andrew GrovesTabitha M Cooney

Pediatric high-grade gliomas (pHGG) are a molecularly diverse group of malignancies, each incredibly aggressive and in dire need of treatment advancements. Genomic analysis has revolutionized our understanding of these tumors, identifying biologically relevant subgroups with differing canonical mutational profiles that vary based on tumor location and age. In particular, the discovery of recurrent histone H3 mutations (H3K27M in diffuse midline glioma, H3G34R/V in hemispheric pediatric...

Pediatric high-grade gliomas (pHGG) are a molecularly diverse group of malignancies, each incredibly aggressive and in dire need of treatment advancements. Genomic analysis has revolutionized our understanding of these tumors, identifying biologically relevant subgroups with differing canonical mutational profiles that vary based on tumor location and age. In particular, the discovery of recurrent histone H3 mutations (H3K27M in diffuse midline glioma, H3G34R/V in hemispheric pediatric...

Front Cell Dev Biol. 2022 Dec 14;10:1089898. doi: 10.3389/fcell.2022.1089898. eCollection 2022.

ABSTRACT

Pediatric high-grade gliomas (pHGG) are a molecularly diverse group of malignancies, each incredibly aggressive and in dire need of treatment advancements. Genomic analysis has revolutionized our understanding of these tumors, identifying biologically relevant subgroups with differing canonical mutational profiles that vary based on tumor location and age. In particular, the discovery of recurrent histone H3 mutations (H3K27M in diffuse midline glioma, H3G34R/V in hemispheric pediatric high-grade gliomas) as unique "oncohistone" drivers revealed epigenetic dysregulation as a hallmark of pediatric high-grade gliomas oncogenesis. While reversing this signature through epigenetic programming has proven effective in several pre-clinical survival models, early results from pediatric high-grade gliomas clinical trials suggest that epigenetic modifier monotherapy will likely not provide long-term disease control. In this review we summarize the genetic, epigenetic, and cellular heterogeneity of pediatric high-grade gliomas, and highlight potential paths forward for epigenetic programming in this devastating disease.

PMID:36589742 | PMC:PMC9795020 | DOI:10.3389/fcell.2022.1089898

Inter and intra-tumor heterogeneity of paediatric type diffuse high-grade gliomas revealed by single-cell mass cytometry

2022-12-2611:00

Lucia Lisa PetrilliClaudia FuocoAlessandro PalmaLuca PasquiniGiulia PericoliYura GrabovskaAlan MackaySabrina RossiAngel M CarcabosoAndrea CaraiAngela MastronuzziChris JonesGianni CesareniFranco LocatelliMaria Vinci

Paediatric-type diffuse high-grade gliomas (PDHGG) are aggressive tumors affecting children and young adults, with no effective treatment. These highly heterogeneous malignancies arise in different sites of the Central Nervous System (CNS), carrying distinctive molecular alterations and clinical outcomes (inter-tumor heterogeneity). Moreover, deep cellular and molecular profiling studies highlighted the coexistence of genetically and phenotypically different subpopulations within the same tumor...

Paediatric-type diffuse high-grade gliomas (PDHGG) are aggressive tumors affecting children and young adults, with no effective treatment. These highly heterogeneous malignancies arise in different sites of the Central Nervous System (CNS), carrying distinctive molecular alterations and clinical outcomes (inter-tumor heterogeneity). Moreover, deep cellular and molecular profiling studies highlighted the coexistence of genetically and phenotypically different subpopulations within the same tumor...

Front Oncol. 2022 Dec 8;12:1016343. doi: 10.3389/fonc.2022.1016343. eCollection 2022.

ABSTRACT

Paediatric-type diffuse high-grade gliomas (PDHGG) are aggressive tumors affecting children and young adults, with no effective treatment. These highly heterogeneous malignancies arise in different sites of the Central Nervous System (CNS), carrying distinctive molecular alterations and clinical outcomes (inter-tumor heterogeneity). Moreover, deep cellular and molecular profiling studies highlighted the coexistence of genetically and phenotypically different subpopulations within the same tumor mass (intra-tumor heterogeneity). Despite the recent advances made in the field, the marked heterogeneity of PDHGGs still impedes the development of effective targeted therapies and the identification of suitable biomarkers. In order to fill the existing gap, we used mass cytometry to dissect PDHGG inter- and intra-heterogeneity. This is one of the most advanced technologies of the "-omics" era that, using antibodies conjugated to heavy metals, allows the simultaneous measurement of more than 40 markers at single-cell level. To this end, we analyzed eight PDHGG patient-derived cell lines from different locational and molecular subgroups. By using a panel of 15 antibodies, directly conjugated to metals or specifically customized to detect important histone variants, significant differences were highlighted in the expression of the considered antigens. The single-cell multiparametric approach realized has deepened our understanding of PDHGG, confirming a high degree of intra- and inter-tumoral heterogeneity and identifying some antigens that could represent useful biomarkers for the specific PDHGG locational or molecular subgroups.

PMID:36568177 | PMC:PMC9773089 | DOI:10.3389/fonc.2022.1016343

Four cases of acute comitant esotropia associated with diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma in children

2022-12-1811:00

D OsborneJ Richardson-MayK BushM EvansS K WestK MayJ Self

CONCLUSIONS: This small series of 4 patients attending our clinic within a 12-month period supports the notion that children presenting with AACE should routinely be offered brain MRI. Not all children with DIPG-associated AACE have significant ophthalmic findings indicative of intracranial pathology. With the potential for increased incidence of AACE related to lockdowns, clinicians should be reminded of the infrequent possibility their patient has a more serious condition.

CONCLUSIONS: This small series of 4 patients attending our clinic within a 12-month period supports the notion that children presenting with AACE should routinely be offered brain MRI. Not all children with DIPG-associated AACE have significant ophthalmic findings indicative of intracranial pathology. With the potential for increased incidence of AACE related to lockdowns, clinicians should be reminded of the infrequent possibility their patient has a more serious condition.

Strabismus. 2022 Dec 18:1-5. doi: 10.1080/09273972.2022.2143823. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute acquired concomitant esotropia (AACE) is usually a benign form of strabismus that infrequently is associated with intracranial pathology. Clinicians have noted an increase in its incidence and theorize that it may be related to public health "lockdown" measures taken in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. With an increased incidence of AACE clinicians must firstly differentiate AACE from common accommodative esotropia and secondly recognize AACE as a possible sign of serious neuropathology.Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma (DIPG) is a devastating diagnosis for affected families. Children typically present at age 6-7 years with cranial nerve palsies, long tract signs, and/or cerebellar signs. Diagnosis is made from characteristic findings on magnetic resonance brain imaging (MRI brain) and treatment includes radiotherapy and palliative care. Two years from diagnosis, 90% of affected children will have died from their disease.

CASE SERIES: We present four cases that attended our pediatric ophthalmology clinic with AACE either as a presenting sign of DIPG or as a clinical finding following a DIPG diagnosis. Patient A (age 5 years) presented to the emergency eye clinic with sudden onset diplopia and intermittent esotropia. Suppression later developed, they had 0.00 logMAR visual acuity either eye, and bilateral physiological hypermetropia. MRI brain imaging requested as a result of the unusual presentation led to the DIPG diagnosis. The other 3 cases (ages 11, 5 & 5 years) were assessed post DIPG diagnosis and found to have an esotropia measuring bigger on 1/3-meter fixation than 6-meter fixation, full ocular motility, physiological hypermetropia or emmetropia, and visual acuity normal for age. Other than patient B (age 11 years), who had papilledema and gaze evoked nystagmus when they were assessed 2 weeks prior to death, no patient had any other clinical eye findings.

CONCLUSIONS: This small series of 4 patients attending our clinic within a 12-month period supports the notion that children presenting with AACE should routinely be offered brain MRI. Not all children with DIPG-associated AACE have significant ophthalmic findings indicative of intracranial pathology. With the potential for increased incidence of AACE related to lockdowns, clinicians should be reminded of the infrequent possibility their patient has a more serious condition.

PMID:36529745 | DOI:10.1080/09273972.2022.2143823

Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Metabolites as Biomarkers of Disease Status in Pediatric Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Gliomas (DIPG) Treated with Glioma-Associated Antigen Peptide Vaccines

2022-12-1111:00

Ashok PanigrahyRegina I JakackiIan F PollackRafael CeschinHideho OkadaMarvin D NelsonGary KohanbashGirish DhallStefan Bluml

CONCLUSION: Higher mI/Cho ratios following RT, consistent with less proliferate tumors and decreased cell turnover, were associated with longer survival, suggesting that this ratio can serve as a biomarker of prognosis following RT. This finding was seen in both cohorts, although the association with OS was detected earlier in the vaccine cohort. Increased mI/Cho (possibly reflecting immune-effector cell influx into the tumor as a mechanism of tumor response) requires further study.

CONCLUSION: Higher mI/Cho ratios following RT, consistent with less proliferate tumors and decreased cell turnover, were associated with longer survival, suggesting that this ratio can serve as a biomarker of prognosis following RT. This finding was seen in both cohorts, although the association with OS was detected earlier in the vaccine cohort. Increased mI/Cho (possibly reflecting immune-effector cell influx into the tumor as a mechanism of tumor response) requires further study.

Cancers (Basel). 2022 Dec 5;14(23):5995. doi: 10.3390/cancers14235995.

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPG) are highly aggressive tumors with no currently available curative therapy. This study evaluated whether measurements of in vivo cell metabolites using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) may serve as biomarkers of response to therapy, including progression.

METHODS: Single-voxel MR spectra were serially acquired in two cohorts of patients with DIPG treated with radiation therapy (RT) with or without concurrent chemotherapy and prior to progression: 14 participants were enrolled in a clinical trial of adjuvant glioma-associated antigen peptide vaccines and 32 patients were enrolled who did not receive adjuvant vaccine therapy. Spearman correlations measured overall survival associations with absolute metabolite concentrations of myo-inositol (mI), creatine (Cr), and n-acetyl-aspartate (NAA) and their ratios relative to choline (Cho) during three specified time periods following completion of RT. Linear mixed-effects regression models evaluated the longitudinal associations between metabolite ratios and time from death (terminal decline).

RESULTS: Overall survival was not associated with metabolite ratios obtained shortly after RT (1.9-3.8 months post-diagnosis) in either cohort. In the vaccine cohort, an elevated mI/Cho ratio after 2-3 doses (3.9-5.2 months post-diagnosis) was associated with longer survival (rho = 0.92, 95% CI 0.67-0.98). Scans performed up to 6 months before death showed a terminal decline in the mI/Cho ratio, with an average of 0.37 ratio/month in vaccine patients (95% CI 0.11-0.63) and 0.26 (0.04-0.48) in the non-vaccine cohort.

CONCLUSION: Higher mI/Cho ratios following RT, consistent with less proliferate tumors and decreased cell turnover, were associated with longer survival, suggesting that this ratio can serve as a biomarker of prognosis following RT. This finding was seen in both cohorts, although the association with OS was detected earlier in the vaccine cohort. Increased mI/Cho (possibly reflecting immune-effector cell influx into the tumor as a mechanism of tumor response) requires further study.

PMID:36497477 | PMC:PMC9739009 | DOI:10.3390/cancers14235995

Real-time drug testing of paediatric diffuse midline glioma to support clinical decision making: The Zurich DIPG/DMG centre experience

2022-12-0111:00

Timothy MuellerSandra LaternserAna S Guerreiro StücklinNicolas U GerberSulayman MourabitMarion RizoElisabeth J RushingRaimund KottkeMichael GrotzerNiklaus KrayenbühlJavad NazarianSabine Mueller

CONCLUSION: We established a systematic workflow for safe, robot-assisted brainstem biopsies and in-house tissue processing, followed by real-time drug testing. This provides valuable insights into tumour prognostic and individual treatment strategies targeting relevant vulnerabilities in these tumours in a clinically meaningful time frame.

CONCLUSION: We established a systematic workflow for safe, robot-assisted brainstem biopsies and in-house tissue processing, followed by real-time drug testing. This provides valuable insights into tumour prognostic and individual treatment strategies targeting relevant vulnerabilities in these tumours in a clinically meaningful time frame.

Eur J Cancer. 2023 Jan;178:171-179. doi: 10.1016/j.ejca.2022.10.014. Epub 2022 Oct 26.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Children diagnosed with diffuse midline gliomas (DMG) have an extremely poor overall survival: 9-12 months from diagnosis with currently no curative treatment options. Given DMG molecular heterogeneity, surgical biopsies are needed for molecular profiling and as part of enrolment into molecular-based and precision medicine type clinical interventions. In this study, we describe the results of real time profiling and drug testing at the diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma/DMG Research Centre at University Children's Hospital Zurich.

METHOD: Biopsies were taken using a frame based stereotactic robot system (NeuroMate®, Renishaw) at University Children's Hospital Zurich. Tissue samples were evaluated to confirm diagnosis by H3K27M and H3K27 trimethylation loss. Genomic analyses were done using a variety of platforms (INFORM, Oncomine, UCSF500 gene panel). Cell lines were developed by mechanical tissue dissociation and verified by either sequencing or immunofluorescence staining confirming H3K27M mutation and used afterwards for drug testing.

RESULTS: Twenty-five robot-assisted primary biopsies were successfully performed. Median hospital stay was 2 days (range 1-4 days). Nine low-passage patient-derived cells were developed, whereas 8 cell lines were used to inform response to clinically relevant drugs. Genome and RNA expression were used to further guide treatment strategies with targeted agents such as dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor paxalisib.

CONCLUSION: We established a systematic workflow for safe, robot-assisted brainstem biopsies and in-house tissue processing, followed by real-time drug testing. This provides valuable insights into tumour prognostic and individual treatment strategies targeting relevant vulnerabilities in these tumours in a clinically meaningful time frame.

PMID:36455411 | DOI:10.1016/j.ejca.2022.10.014

2