Initial clinical applications treating pediatric and adolescent patients using MR-guided radiotherapy

2022-11-2411:00

Margaret M KozakDavid CromptonBrandie A GrossLyndsay HarshmanDavid DickensJeffrey SnyderAndrew ShepardJoël St-AubinDavid DunkerleyDaniel HyerJohn M Buatti

CONCLUSION: MRgRT was well-tolerated by pediatric and AYA patients. There was no increased use of anesthesia outside of our usual practice. Dosimetric advantages were seen for patients with tumors in critical locations such as adjacent to or involving optic structures, stomach, kidney, bowel, and heart.

CONCLUSION: MRgRT was well-tolerated by pediatric and AYA patients. There was no increased use of anesthesia outside of our usual practice. Dosimetric advantages were seen for patients with tumors in critical locations such as adjacent to or involving optic structures, stomach, kidney, bowel, and heart.

Front Oncol. 2022 Nov 7;12:962926. doi: 10.3389/fonc.2022.962926. eCollection 2022.

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To demonstrate the clinical applications and feasibility of online adaptive magnetic resonance image guided radiotherapy (MRgRT) in the pediatric, adolescent and young adult (AYA) population.

METHODS: This is a retrospective case series of patients enrolled onto a prospective study. All pediatric (age < 18) and AYA patients (age< 30), treated on the Elekta Unity MR linear accelerator (MRL) from 2019 to 2021 were enrolled onto a prospective registry. Rationale for MRgRT included improved visualization of and alignment to the primary tumor, re-irradiation in a critical area, ability to use smaller margins, and need for daily adaptive replanning to minimize dose to adjacent critical structures. Step-and-shoot intensity-modulated radiation treatment (IMRT) plans were generated for all Unity patients with a dose grid of 3 mm and a statistical uncertainty of < 1% per plan.

RESULTS: A total of 15 pediatric and AYA patients have been treated with median age of 13 years (range: 6 mos - 27 yrs). Seven patients were <10 yo. The clinical applications of MRgRT included Wilms tumor with unresectable IVC thrombus (n=1), Ewing sarcoma (primary and metastatic, n=3), recurrent diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG, n=2), nasopharyngeal carcinoma (n=1), clival chordoma (n=1), primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the pancreas (n=1), recurrent gluteo-sacral germ cell tumor (n=1), C-spine ependymoma (n=1), and posterior fossa ependymoma (n=1). Two children required general anesthesia. One AYA patient could not complete the MRgRT course due to tumor-related pain exacerbated by longer treatment times. Two AYA patients experienced anxiety related to treatment on the MRL, one of which required daily Ativan. No patient experienced treatment interruptions or unexpected toxicity.

CONCLUSION: MRgRT was well-tolerated by pediatric and AYA patients. There was no increased use of anesthesia outside of our usual practice. Dosimetric advantages were seen for patients with tumors in critical locations such as adjacent to or involving optic structures, stomach, kidney, bowel, and heart.

PMID:36419881 | PMC:PMC9676495 | DOI:10.3389/fonc.2022.962926

Trigeminal trophic syndrome in a pediatric patient with diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma

2022-11-2211:00

Ezra HooverRyan JayPatricia Witman

A 13-year-old girl with a history of diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) suffered from progressively worsening facial ulcerations secondary to paresthesia-induced self-excoriation. She was diagnosed with trigeminal trophic syndrome (TTS) induced by DIPG and struggled to heal her lesions in the background of this excoriation disorder. A multidisciplinary approach that included mood disorder management with sertraline and amitriptyline helped diminish paresthesia, improve her quality of life,...

A 13-year-old girl with a history of diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) suffered from progressively worsening facial ulcerations secondary to paresthesia-induced self-excoriation. She was diagnosed with trigeminal trophic syndrome (TTS) induced by DIPG and struggled to heal her lesions in the background of this excoriation disorder. A multidisciplinary approach that included mood disorder management with sertraline and amitriptyline helped diminish paresthesia, improve her quality of life,...

Pediatr Dermatol. 2022 Nov 21. doi: 10.1111/pde.15164. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

A 13-year-old girl with a history of diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) suffered from progressively worsening facial ulcerations secondary to paresthesia-induced self-excoriation. She was diagnosed with trigeminal trophic syndrome (TTS) induced by DIPG and struggled to heal her lesions in the background of this excoriation disorder. A multidisciplinary approach that included mood disorder management with sertraline and amitriptyline helped diminish paresthesia, improve her quality of life, and promote healing of the ulcers despite the progression of her DIPG. This case highlights the multifactorial complexity of TTS in pediatric patients and the need for successful management strategies.

PMID:36411544 | DOI:10.1111/pde.15164

Interdisciplinary care of children with diffuse midline glioma

2022-11-2111:00

Christina ColemanKatherine ChenAlex LuElizabeth SeashoreSchuyler StollerTaron DavisSteve BraunsteinNalin GuptaSabine Mueller

Diffuse Midline Glioma (DMG) which includes Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma (DIPG) is an infiltrative tumor of the midline structures of the central nervous system that demonstrates an aggressive pattern of growth and has no known curative treatment. As these tumors progress, children experience ongoing neurological decline including inability to ambulate, swallow and communicate effectively. We propose that optimal care for patients with DMG should involve a specialized team experienced in...

Diffuse Midline Glioma (DMG) which includes Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma (DIPG) is an infiltrative tumor of the midline structures of the central nervous system that demonstrates an aggressive pattern of growth and has no known curative treatment. As these tumors progress, children experience ongoing neurological decline including inability to ambulate, swallow and communicate effectively. We propose that optimal care for patients with DMG should involve a specialized team experienced in...

Neoplasia. 2022 Nov 18;35:100851. doi: 10.1016/j.neo.2022.100851. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Diffuse Midline Glioma (DMG) which includes Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma (DIPG) is an infiltrative tumor of the midline structures of the central nervous system that demonstrates an aggressive pattern of growth and has no known curative treatment. As these tumors progress, children experience ongoing neurological decline including inability to ambulate, swallow and communicate effectively. We propose that optimal care for patients with DMG should involve a specialized team experienced in caring for the multifaceted needs of these patients and their families. Herein we review the roles and evidence to support early involvement of a specialized interdisciplinary team and outline our views on best practices for these challenging tumors.

PMID:36410226 | DOI:10.1016/j.neo.2022.100851

Current perspectives on diffuse midline glioma and a different role for the immune microenvironment compared to glioblastoma

2022-11-1911:00

Casper J PachockiElly M Hol

Diffuse midline glioma (DMG), formerly called diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG), is a high-grade malignant pediatric brain tumor with a near-zero survival rate. To date, only radiation therapy provides marginal survival benefit; however, the median survival time remains less than a year. Historically, the infiltrative nature and sensitive location of the tumor rendered surgical removal and biopsies difficult and subsequently resulted in limited knowledge of the disease, as only post-mortem...

Diffuse midline glioma (DMG), formerly called diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG), is a high-grade malignant pediatric brain tumor with a near-zero survival rate. To date, only radiation therapy provides marginal survival benefit; however, the median survival time remains less than a year. Historically, the infiltrative nature and sensitive location of the tumor rendered surgical removal and biopsies difficult and subsequently resulted in limited knowledge of the disease, as only post-mortem...

J Neuroinflammation. 2022 Nov 19;19(1):276. doi: 10.1186/s12974-022-02630-8.

ABSTRACT

Diffuse midline glioma (DMG), formerly called diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG), is a high-grade malignant pediatric brain tumor with a near-zero survival rate. To date, only radiation therapy provides marginal survival benefit; however, the median survival time remains less than a year. Historically, the infiltrative nature and sensitive location of the tumor rendered surgical removal and biopsies difficult and subsequently resulted in limited knowledge of the disease, as only post-mortem tissue was available. Therefore, clinical decision-making was based upon experience with the more frequent and histologically similar adult glioblastoma (GBM). Recent advances in tissue acquisition and molecular profiling revealed that DMG and GBM are distinct disease entities, with separate tissue characteristics and genetic profiles. DMG is characterized by heterogeneous tumor tissue often paired with an intact blood-brain barrier, possibly explaining its resistance to chemotherapy. Additional profiling shed a light on the origin of the disease and the influence of several mutations such as a highly recurring K27M mutation in histone H3 on its tumorigenesis. Furthermore, early evidence suggests that DMG has a unique immune microenvironment, characterized by low levels of immune cell infiltration, inflammation, and immunosuppression that may impact disease development and outcome. Within the tumor microenvironment of GBM, tumor-associated microglia/macrophages (TAMs) play a large role in tumor development. Interestingly, TAMs in DMG display distinct features and have low immune activation in comparison to other pediatric gliomas. Although TAMs have been investigated substantially in GBM over the last years, this has not been the case for DMG due to the lack of tissue for research. Bit by bit, studies are exploring the TAM-glioma crosstalk to identify what factors within the DMG microenvironment play a role in the recruitment and polarization of TAMs. Although more research into the immune microenvironment is warranted, there is evidence that targeting or stimulating TAMs and their factors provide a potential treatment option for DMG. In this review, we provide insight into the current status of DMG research, assess the knowledge of the immune microenvironment in DMG and GBM, and present recent findings and therapeutic opportunities surrounding the TAM-glioma crosstalk.

PMID:36403059 | PMC:PMC9675250 | DOI:10.1186/s12974-022-02630-8

Phase I dose escalation and expansion trial of single agent ONC201 in pediatric diffuse midline gliomas following radiotherapy

2022-11-1611:00

Sharon L GardnerRohinton S TaraporeJeffrey AllenSusan L McGovernWafik ZakyYazmin OdiaDoured DaghistaniZuanel DiazMatthew D HallZiad KhatibCarl KoschmannEvan CantorRyo KurokawaTobey J MacDonaldDolly AguileraNicholas A VitanzaSabine MuellerCassie KlineGuangrong LuJoshua E AllenSoumen Khatua

CONCLUSIONS: The adult 625 mg weekly RP2D of ONC201 scaled by body weight was well tolerated. Further investigation of ONC201 for DMG/DIPG is warranted.

CONCLUSIONS: The adult 625 mg weekly RP2D of ONC201 scaled by body weight was well tolerated. Further investigation of ONC201 for DMG/DIPG is warranted.

Neurooncol Adv. 2022 Sep 13;4(1):vdac143. doi: 10.1093/noajnl/vdac143. eCollection 2022 Jan-Dec.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: ONC201, a dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2) antagonist and caseinolytic protease P (ClpP) agonist, has induced durable tumor regressions in adults with recurrent H3 K27M-mutant glioma. We report results from the first phase I pediatric clinical trial of ONC201.

METHODS: This open-label, multi-center clinical trial (NCT03416530) of ONC201 for pediatric H3 K27M-mutant diffuse midline glioma (DMG) or diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) employed a dose-escalation and dose-expansion design. The primary endpoint was the recommended phase II dose (RP2D). A standard 3 + 3 dose escalation design was implemented. The target dose was the previously established adult RP2D (625 mg), scaled by body weight. Twenty-two pediatric patients with DMG/DIPG were treated following radiation; prior lines of systemic therapy in addition to radiation were permitted providing sufficient time had elapsed prior to study treatment.

RESULTS: The RP2D of orally administered ONC201 in this pediatric population was determined to be the adult RP2D (625 mg), scaled by body weight; no dose-limiting toxicities (DLT) occurred. The most frequent treatment-emergent Grade 1-2 AEs were headache, nausea, vomiting, dizziness and increase in alanine aminotransferase. Pharmacokinetics were determined following the first dose: <i>T</i> <sub>1/2</sub>, 8.4 h; <i>T</i> <sub>max</sub>, 2.1 h; <i>C</i> <sub>max</sub>, 2.3 µg/mL; AUC<sub>0-tlast</sub>, 16.4 hµg/mL. Median duration of treatment was 20.6 weeks (range 5.1-129). Five (22.7%) patients, all of whom initiated ONC201 following radiation and prior to recurrence, were alive at 2 years from diagnosis.

CONCLUSIONS: The adult 625 mg weekly RP2D of ONC201 scaled by body weight was well tolerated. Further investigation of ONC201 for DMG/DIPG is warranted.

PMID:36382108 | PMC:PMC9639395 | DOI:10.1093/noajnl/vdac143

The neuropsychological profile of children with Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma (DIPG) before and after radiation therapy: A prospective longitudinal study

2022-11-1211:00

Amanda RhodesStaci MartinMary Anne Toledo-TamulaCaitlyn LoucasJohn GlodKatherine E WarrenPamela L Wolters

Children with Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Gliomas (DIPG), a malignant brainstem tumor, experience poor prognosis. Because of the disease's rarity and highly aggressive course, there is a dearth of research on cognitive and psychosocial outcomes in this underserved, vulnerable population. However, evaluating effects of the disease and treatment on the cognitive and daily functioning of these patients is important to better understand their specific needs and improve their quality of life. The...

Children with Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Gliomas (DIPG), a malignant brainstem tumor, experience poor prognosis. Because of the disease's rarity and highly aggressive course, there is a dearth of research on cognitive and psychosocial outcomes in this underserved, vulnerable population. However, evaluating effects of the disease and treatment on the cognitive and daily functioning of these patients is important to better understand their specific needs and improve their quality of life. The...

Child Neuropsychol. 2022 Nov 11:1-25. doi: 10.1080/09297049.2022.2144189. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Children with Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Gliomas (DIPG), a malignant brainstem tumor, experience poor prognosis. Because of the disease's rarity and highly aggressive course, there is a dearth of research on cognitive and psychosocial outcomes in this underserved, vulnerable population. However, evaluating effects of the disease and treatment on the cognitive and daily functioning of these patients is important to better understand their specific needs and improve their quality of life. The current longitudinal study administered prospective neuropsychological assessments to children diagnosed with CNS malignancies, including the largest sample of children with DIPG to date (n = 21, mean age = 7.86 years, range = 3-16) in neurocognitive, behavioral, social-emotional, and adaptive functioning at baseline, two weeks post-radiation, and six months later. The results describe population-based, cross-sectional characteristics and within-patient longitudinal changes. Prior to radiation, children with DIPG exhibited significant weaknesses compared to normative samples in both parent-report and performance-based measures of attention, and tests of processing speed and verbal learning/memory. Younger children demonstrated poorer inhibitory control on performance tests and worse parent-reported behavioral regulation, depression, and social withdrawal compared to older children. Six-months post-radiation, older children exhibited poorer socialization than younger children. Longitudinally, children with DIPG exhibited short-term improvements immediately post-radiation in performance-based attention tests and parent-reported behavior, including attention, hyperactivity, behavioral regulation, and executive function. However, these improvements did not persist and significant decline was documented on tests of attention by six months. Clinical implications for professionals working with children with DIPG and recommendations for cognitive remediation and quality of life interventions are provided.

PMID:36369715 | DOI:10.1080/09297049.2022.2144189

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